Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of vanadium phosphate as a lithium-ion battery electrode material

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Volume 35, p.041513 (2017)



Vanadium phosphate films were deposited by a new process consisting of sequential exposures to trimethyl phosphate (TMP) plasma, O2 plasma, and either vanadium oxytriisopropoxide [VTIP, OV(O-i-Pr)3] or tetrakisethylmethylamido vanadium [TEMAV, V(NEtMe)4] as the vanadium precursor. At a substrate temperature of 300 °C, the decomposition behavior of these precursors could not be neglected; while VTIP decomposed and thus yielded a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process, the author found that the decomposition of the TEMAV precursor was inhibited by the preceding TMP plasma/O2 plasma exposures. The TEMAV process showed linear growth, saturating behavior, and yielded uniform and smooth films; as such, it was regarded as a plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition process. The resulting films had an elastic recoil detection-measured stoichiometry of V1.1PO4.3 with 3% hydrogen and no detectable carbon contamination. They could be electrochemically lithiated and showed desirable properties as lithium-ion battery electrodes in the potential region between 1.4 and 3.6 V versus Li+/Li, including low capacity fading and an excellent rate capability. In a wider potential region, they showed a remarkably high capacity (equivalent to three lithium ions per vanadium atom), at the expense of reduced cyclability.

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